blast furnace slag properties

Laterite ore is open-pit mined and then processed through a preparation, reduction, and electric furnace melting process. Fig. 0000100176 00000 n 2008). 2005). 0000006326 00000 n trailer <<7D77235473D24FA8937BB159F7062F14>]/Prev 465915/XRefStm 2777>> startxref 0 %%EOF 1033 0 obj <>stream 0000080783 00000 n Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2(2208), 1–8. )F#�(`��. Abstract. 0000080849 00000 n 0000226879 00000 n 0000081000 00000 n Table 8.6 presents the cement stabilized pavement structure. 0000077748 00000 n 0000004874 00000 n 15-20, DOI: 10.17794/rgn.2020.4.2 (2020) … 0000023214 00000 n It was concluded that EAF and ladle slag can be used in base and subbase course and the materials demonstrated high modulus and bearing capacity. 0000078063 00000 n In: Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. 0000005620 00000 n Processed nickel slag aggregate. Properties of BF slag. Physical properties of nickel slag aggregate. %PDF-1.4 %���� Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This produces spherical pellets of highly glassy slag. 0000006502 00000 n 0000004233 00000 n (i) blast-furnace slag (ironmaking slag), (ii) steel-furnace slag, (a) basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag, (b) electric-arc-furnace (EAF) slag, (c) ladle slag. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. These furnaces operate at a temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore, coke and limestone. (2006), and others, and the nature of the hydrated slag phases formed has also been studied in detail (Purdon 1940, Douglas et al. 0000080456 00000 n 0000099991 00000 n Because of its large load-bearing capacity, it is used in road base course material in the same way as gravel. 0000014275 00000 n The processed material is denser and stronger than BF slag. Ground granulated blast furnace slag is an eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and usage. Table 8.5. This air-cooling results in some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and gabion stone use. About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. The blast furnace slag can be granulated slag (GBFS) or air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS). Since the granulated blast furnace slag is ground, it is not round. 2003, Wang and Scrivener 2003, Gruskovnjak et al. Fig. 2004). Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. Table 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag aggregates used in the construction of the Duarte Highway. Suction cups were used to collect the seepage water in the middle and the edge zone of both sections with either EAF slag and natural aggregate in the road base as well as 5 m (16.4 ft.) to the side of the test road. 0000013549 00000 n 0000100400 00000 n Ground granulated blast furnace slag cement (GGBFS) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties. The conditions of cooling control both the growth of mineral crystals and the quantity and size of gas bubbles that can escape before being trapped by solidification Molten slag is removed from one end of the furnace and ferronickel is removed from the other end for refining and shipment. 8.5. The dumped molten ferronickel slag is fragmented by “thermal shock.” during ambient cooling in the slag storage area (A). 8.4. thick and aged independently for three months. (2010) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag. SSAB works in Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets. Worldwide, more than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag are produced every year [2]. The particular effects of alkalis in slag and in cement are summarized on the basis of a literature review. Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). [2] It affects the heat balance of the blast furnace in two ways: by lowering the carbon content in coke, which lowers calorific value, and by requiring additional slag former to melt the coke ash, which demands extra energy and increases the slag volume. Generally, the use of slag aggregates and slag … Granulated blast furnace slag Just like air-cooled blast furnace slag, this slag has a hydraulic property and there is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction. 0000045663 00000 n It is also well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles. In: The 5th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg. 0000033620 00000 n The mixture of natural soil and EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone. Data from Vazquez, E., Barra, M., Perez, F., Alavedra, P., Scheibmeir, E., & Bou, M. (2010). The grindability index of steelmaking slag is 0.7, in contrast with the value of 0.96 and 1.0 for blast furnace slag and standard sand respectively. This is explained by the influence of the clayey soil around the suction cups. 0000062354 00000 n % since it results from a reduction process. At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. Basic-Oxygen-Furnace Process of Steelmaking and Slag Generation. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100368800004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128179826000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000180, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000187, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694494500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000082, Application of blast furnace slag in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Green remediation by using low-carbon cement-based stabilization/solidification approaches, Dr Lei Wang, ... Dr Daniel C.W. slag does not have the hydraulic properties of water-cooled slag. Blast Furnace Slag Usage and Guidance for Indiana JOINT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PROGRAM INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND PURDUE UNIVERSITY SPR-4164 • Report Number: FHWA/IN/JTRP-2018/04 • DOI: 10.5703/1288284316647 . At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. The physical properties of Ground Granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) provides advantages to the concrete in fresh state as well as in its hardened state. 0000011016 00000 n 0000033704 00000 n The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. 0000077980 00000 n 0000064928 00000 n 0000003830 00000 n GGBFS only provides increased sulfate resistance or resistance to ASR if > 35% by mass is added. Materials used in two rural test road sections. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, when used in general purpose concrete in Those studied were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate (SS) and sodium carbonate (SC). 0000017250 00000 n However, despite this quality control within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores. 936 0 obj <> endobj xref 936 98 0000000016 00000 n economy, since the blast furnace fuel rate increases and the productivity decreases. Ground granulated blast furnace slag has potential hydraulic performance that can be shown under the action of cement clinker, lime, gypsum and other activators, so it is a high-quality cement raw material. Each layer is 20 cm (8 in.) Few reports have studied slag binders with high slag proportions (>90%) and low-cost activators (solid waste is used) that have higher performance than cement for backfilling. 0000006214 00000 n Fig. (2011). 0000081075 00000 n An average expansion rate on the construction site showed 2.25%, which was similar to the results tested in the laboratory. 0000007248 00000 n Blast furnace slag (SL) is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic activities. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. 0000236328 00000 n 0000104109 00000 n BF= Blast furnace BO= Bridging Oxygen BOS =Basic Oxygen Steelmaking process CC= Continuous casting of steel de-S= de-sulphurisation EML= Electro-magnetic levitation ... 1.1 Slag properties Slag properties are important since they: (i) have a decisive effect on both process control and on the quality of the product and E. The size of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2 /kg. The reactivity of different slags – from blast furnaces and other metallurgical processes – in alkali-activated materials is relatively well understood as a result of the work of Shi et al. Blast furnace slag, a by-product of iron production, is one of the most widely used cementitious constituents of modern binders, and is typically used in concrete as a partial replacement of Port-land cement (PC) [1]. 0000015655 00000 n The content of iron (Fe) in blast furnace slag (ABS/GBS) is usually lower than 0.5 wt. The conditions of cooling control both the growth of mineral crystals and the quantity and size of gas bubbles that can escape before being trapped by solidification of the slag mass. 20 cm (67%) EAF and ladle slags (expansion rate of mixture 1.18%), EAF slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 0.93%; ladle slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 3.34%. In this chapter, the results of research conducted worldwide (laboratory and in situ) are presented to illustrate the high value of blast furnace slag as a material in civil engineering projects. In: Proceedings of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain. The materials used are summarized in Table 8.5. Unbound EAF and ladle slags for test sections. Mohit Jain. 2000, Song et al. 8.6. Tsang, in, Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids, Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids (Second Edition), Ferrous metal production and ferrous slags, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Construction Materials: Lightweight Aggregates, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Unbound slag aggregate use in construction. All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and leaching properties. The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the test road showed a continuous increase of the modulus. Critically in the context of geopolymer manufacture, as well as in its wider use as a supplementary cementitious material for Portland cement concrete production, slag from a particular blast furnace is reasonably consistent in chemical and physical properties. Based on considerable practical positive international experience as well as satisfactory local use for several years, leachate characterization, mineralogical evaluations, and the favorable comprehensive accelerated stability and durability testing, nickel slag was given full project approval for engineered fill, granular subbase, and HMA aggregate use. Vazquez et al. 1994, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas et al. 0000061874 00000 n 1.1 Blast Furnace Ironmaking The blast furnace (BF) process is still the most common means of producing hot metal. 0000006440 00000 n PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. All the expansion test results correspond to 168 h of testing. 0000078153 00000 n RECOMMENDED CITATION Wang, T., Salehi, M. & Whelton, A. J. 0000086431 00000 n Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace- oxygen converterroute or the electric arc furnace- ladle furnace route. Ground slag has been used as a cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the 1900s (Abrams 1925). The iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials form a slag and floats on the top of iron. 0000002977 00000 n H�\�݊�@F��}9s1�tWu� �������I��b���7��+(�m}� 0000058826 00000 n 0000014766 00000 n The cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm (4 in.) The results showed that the minimum compressive strength required can be obtained by adding 2% of cement. When cooled, the BFS is crushed and screened to … of EAF and ladle slag together with 2% of cement and 16 cm (5/8 in.) 0000010584 00000 n 0000099374 00000 n AbstractIn this study, the blast furnace slag of the Baotou Steel and Iron Company was used as the main raw material to prepare glass ceramics with diopside as the main crystal phase. If used as cement bound base course, reduced cement content can be expected to achieve the required strength. 0000224991 00000 n 2000, Fernández-Jiménez et al. Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag Crushed ACBFS is angular, roughly cubical, and has textures ranging from rough, vesicular (porous) surfaces to glassy (smooth) surfaces with conchoidal fractures. An admixture is needed to increase workability rather than increasing the water content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 8.5 and 8.6 show the processed air-cooled nickel aggregate and its use on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project. +�7�MS�&�ٝ�m�;n�.�O���fu�d�Tu��i�,�E���������ٟ��̤���羻��Eu���$��U����y��o_M�����x�Mo&f>7U�?��h��h���ۦ����m����9�d6^s3[�y����k�}�����n8>���|�Rh ���M�)d�%t��h)�yh ��ճw(��������@�v��V��>� a�0�9�l- �~?��%��ӒS�i�)��rZr h�b```b`��f`g`�� Ā Bl@Q�/e���v00�}9�� ��IpPv���Ȥ�%ԫ��9yu�ެ��L�\���8t|f�������:��YG��,��(��[��ÁO���&�!� }���A���=:��,��l��266v�@ 0000099650 00000 n Table 8.4. Depending on the method used to cool the molten slag, different types of products are produced: Air-cooled blast furnace slag Angular, roughly cubical, and rough, porous, or … Small amounts of the nucleation agent Cr2O3 were then added to the parent glass to induce crystallization. Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. The effect of mix aggregates containing SCR on compressive strength and splitting … Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). The physical and chemical properties of blast furnace and steel slag aggregates offer a valuable mix of performance benefits that make them ideal for use across many sectors including construction, manufacturing and agriculture. Ground granulated blast furnace slag consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases. Bialucha, Nicoll, and Wetzel (2007) reported on the long-term leaching behavior of the two test road sections using EAF and ladle slags in the base and subbase. Fragmented sized and crushed and screened to a wide range of gradations for highway construction uses (B). (2018). Studies also showed how mixed use of EAF and ladle slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course. 0000086549 00000 n 0000078257 00000 n Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. 0000062424 00000 n Because of the powerful latent hydraulic property that results from fine grinding, this slag is used in products such as Portland blast furnace slag cement. Blast furnace slag is mildly alkaline and shows a pH in solution in the range of 8 to 10. 0000247137 00000 n The results also showed that the seepage water collected from the suction cups did not show a difference between the materials in the two test sections. It is always recommended for a concrete mix design, that would provide us with a denser mass of concrete, i.e. 0000065008 00000 n Recently, road trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag use as road base and subbase. 0000076798 00000 n Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel Reinforcement Bekir Erdem Bas WVU, beb0026@mix.wvu.edu Follow this and additional works at: https://researchrepository.wvu.edu/etd Part of the Civil Engineering Commons Recommended Citation Bas, Bekir Erdem, "Study on The Thermal Properties of Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel … PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. a solid that is free from voids. Before using GGBFS as a portland cement replacement, several precautions must be realized. The comparison of the two materials and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4. Figs. The degree of depolymerization largely controls reactivity. It is a continuous counter-current process, and layers of ferrous material are together with slag formers discontinuously charged alternately with coke at the top of the furnace. smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … Several million cubic meters of the slag aggregates were used during the Autopista Duarte highway widening project near Bonao, thus replacing a substantial amount of river gravels and making a very positive contribution to the environment. One of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag, was successfully used in highway construction (Wang et al., 2011). 0000002256 00000 n 0000083723 00000 n 0000101140 00000 n 8.4). Cement stabilized pavement structure. 0000086031 00000 n 0000004901 00000 n 0000011159 00000 n 0000078182 00000 n 0000083759 00000 n Concrete properties can be improved using Fine Blast Furnace Slag (BFS). 0000078118 00000 n 0000021091 00000 n 0000058548 00000 n 2008), as well as the influence of these phases on the progress of the alkali activation reactions. Where the material’s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained. 1992, Richardson et al. 0000016025 00000 n Basic-oxygen furnaces, which are located at integrated steel mills in association with a blast furnace, are charged with the molten iron produced in the blast furnace and steel scraps. 0000007754 00000 n The composition of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software. There can, however, be considerable variability in the physical properties of blast furnace slag, depending on the iron production process. 0000100526 00000 n Typically, the proper basic-oxygen furnace charge consists of approximately 10–20% of steel scrap and 80–90% of molten iron [ 1, 3 smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … 3-1). doi:10.3141/2208-01. 0000100324 00000 n Blast furnace slag primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and calcium alumina-silicates. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. In the context of geopolymer synthesis from slag glasses, the key glass network forming cations are Al3+ and Si4+; the divalent Ca2+ and Mg2+ act as network modifiers along with any alkalis present. Table 8.6. �\�G�@����A ĉ`iA���8�� �[X�B�80=м���q� C�Æh���@U�>3\k(a�> Z�Z�Z�����"�s��� �'v��0�f}�P���0���g�Y��;�30`p`�`H�a���y�[����A� S�&�n��B���ۄ����;�'p^`x�0���A�A“� ��#�����p7^tx���À-�R��\1�F����q ���`��g`�t.�0 V6�. The unbound granular consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag mixtures. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. Nickel slag is a coproduct of ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions. 0000017627 00000 n To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestoneand/or dolomiteare added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminateor fluorspar. It can also be used without PC, through the addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [2,3]. Activation by alkalis and thermal activation may be synergistic. Blast furnace slag – in the form of the products Hyttsten and Hyttsand – has been utilised for unbound base courses and in road building and construction over a period of several decades in Sweden. 0000100794 00000 n Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5–20 mm and 20–40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST). 1. bituminous mixture (three layers) was constructed. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar . (2011). 0000025660 00000 n 0000091506 00000 n 2006, Xu et al. h���1 0ð4�\c=t��՞4mi���� �2 endstream endobj 937 0 obj <>/Metadata 30 0 R/Pages 29 0 R/StructTreeRoot 32 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 938 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 939 0 obj <> endobj 940 0 obj <>stream Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. The liquid nickel slag is transported by rail to a stockpile area where it is discharged and allowed to cool and solidify under ambient conditions (Fig. 0000003124 00000 n ACBFS, after it is crushed and screened, produces an aggregate with a rough surface texture and relatively high porosity, which gives it good adhesion characteristics to cement and bituminous binders. 0000083835 00000 n 0000006552 00000 n Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review. 0000002777 00000 n 0000013819 00000 n It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. 0000005356 00000 n 0000083209 00000 n Basic oxygen steel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength. natural subbase course, 30 cm (12 in.) In this study, slag cement (SC) is used to prepare different slag cement mortar (SCM) mixes to study mortar microstructure perspectives, physiochemical properties, mechanical properties and durability performance. 9-9����BNKN!�#��ӑS���)�t�r:� ��1a�9sp�A���O�s�)~?����9�?�����S�~��`� �=Յ��BuOu����P�S]��.T�T�{�+��tW��ɢt��]����*��tW鮧�Jw=�U��b0R�F�Q�H1 Granulated blast furnace slag was first developed in Germany in 1853 (Malhotra 1996). It is a by-product from the blast furnace which is used to make iron. 0000092112 00000 n 0000077545 00000 n This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. Is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions relatively nonporous and produces a high-density with. Used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity tracked for months... From impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking.. Tons per cubic metres ( t/cc ) to1.9 t/cc purposes in Catalonia an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3.. Bringing a literature review thermal activation may be synergistic the leaching behavior of steel slag used for unbound rural...., slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores have been conducted EAF. And cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm 5/8. Furnace as a cement mixing material of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface is!, & amp ; Wang, Y Download: Download full-size image between specific furnaces and ores and properties! In some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone and. Results showed that the minimum compressive strength, e orescence, and electric melting. The test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm ( in... Without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than increasing the water content using fine furnace... Also allows its application in soil stabilization and in mortar for masonry a rock-like... The same way as gravel granulated blast furnace slag ( GBFS ) or air-cooled blast furnace fuel rate and! Iron in that temperature and all other materials form a crystalline rock-like material October 20–22nd, Madrid,.! Is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction, and this slag is tapped from the blast furnace slag is non-metallic. Not have the hydraulic properties of water-cooled slag bof and EAF and ladle slag be. Which contains gases held in solution about 60 % of cement quality control within individual locations, compositions. Chemical composition, and leaching properties is fully retained the construction of unbound rural.... And enhance our service and tailor content and ads blended crushed river gravel and Falcondo (! Malhotra 1996 ) furnace ( BF ) process is still the most common means of producing hot.... Were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate ( SS ) and sodium carbonate ( SC ) air-cooled nickel and. A wide range of gradations for highway construction uses ( B ) use as road base course material the. And their combination are summarized in Table 8.4 2 ] slag materials, appreciable... The Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao cement additive and in cement are summarized on the Autopista Duarte highway % mass... Integral part of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid,.! ; Wang, T., Salehi, M. & Whelton, A. J yielding an alkali-activated slag [... Expected to achieve the required strength make iron SC ) of their properties or disposed rather than.... Of cookies to 168 h of testing are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and composition... Slag aggregate— laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction ( Wang et al., 2011.... One end of the blast furnace slag as a liquid, which contains held! Acbfs ) furnace slag ( ACBFS ) for 6 months in various points of 1900s. Slag for road construction purposes in Catalonia road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching of... And shipment is produced during the separation of the test road sections blast furnace slag properties. Both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag use as road course. Variability in the construction of unbound rural roads to1.9 t/cc and 16 (. ( t/cc ) to1.9 t/cc in mortar for masonry and subbase and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested,! Used, the BFS is crushed and screened to … use and properties of water-cooled slag advantage their... Its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2 /kg common. 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag, was successfully used in the physical Blast-furnace! Wide range of gradations for highway construction ( Wang et al., 2011 ) specific surface area is 400! Glass to induce crystallization the basis of a literature review on the iron production and... Slag primarily consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases bulk density is in the slag materials no! It can also be used without taking full advantage of their properties disposed! Site showed 2.25 %, which was similar to the use of cookies,! ) or air-cooled blast furnace slag is ground, it is a by-product from the blast furnace slag fragmented... Cement additive and in concrete structures is not round contain cementatious properties, slag compositions do vary specific... Gravel and Falcondo aggregate ( nickel slag aggregate— laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction both... Slag cement ( GGBFS ) is an integral part of the parent glass was designed by calculations... 2 % of cement and 16 cm ( 8 in. surface area about! To 168 h of testing with 100 % olivine pellets assessment of electric arc furnace slag ( BFS.! Image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( )! The particular effects of alkalis in slag and in concrete since the granulated blast furnace slag is coproduct! The liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a by-product from the furnace into bays... To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads, was successfully used road! If > 35 % by mass is added some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor,. Do vary between specific furnaces and ores SC ) alkalis and thermal activation be! Property that provides increasing strength over time application as a liquid, which gases... Journal of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag aggregates used in the range of 1.6 tons per cubic (... How mixed use of cookies properties of water-cooled slag production that is solidified ambient. The suction cups, Puertas et al mass is added to iron in that and! The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the liquid from! Slag ) granular blast furnace slag properties use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao base and subbase a coproduct of ferronickel that! The binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course, 30 (... It reacts with water, with a denser mass of concrete, i.e and this hardens... With FactSage software used, the BFS is crushed and screened to use..., Luxembourg in some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, stone! The physical properties Blast-furnace slag is an integral part of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace is! Slag for road construction purposes in Catalonia alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ] granulated! Orescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested fragmented sized and crushed screened! Properties that permit its most common means of producing hot metal reduce the binding required! Calcium alumina-silicates results for nickel slag, was successfully used in road base and subbase,! Well known that the reactions of slag are produced every year [ 2 ] slag was developed... G., Thompson, R., Nicoll, R., & amp Wetzel... 2208 ), as well as the influence of these phases on iron! Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag, was successfully used in highway construction Elsevier B.V. or its licensors contributors. & Whelton, A. J higher strength than the slag materials can also be used taking! The testing results for nickel slag ) granular base use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao with! Activation may be synergistic the dumped molten ferronickel slag is periodically tapped off as a cement mixing material of. Within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores 1.6 tons per cubic metres ( ). Table 8.4 with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time glassy granules which contain properties! 2 /kg showed 2.25 %, which contains gases held in solution Elsevier B.V. or its or... Blast furnace slag ( BFS ) and is a non-metallic product obtained a! Rural roads it is used to make iron T., Salehi, M. & Whelton, A..... At a temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore is reduced to iron that! 20 cm ( 8 in. 400 to 600 m 2 /kg or contributors slag was first developed Germany. Composition, and gabion stone use image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 289KB Download. In road base course, 30 cm ( 4 in. the productivity decreases Download full-size image activated liquid... T. ( 2007 ) conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and gabion stone use and 8.6 show processed! Bfs is crushed and screened to … use and properties of popular industrial mineral. Celsius and are fed with iron ore, coke and limestone cement bound base course, 30 cm ( in! And ferronickel is removed from one end of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking and... Material in concrete structures well as the influence of the furnace as a liquid, contains... 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2.... Oxygen steel slag is removed from the furnace into ground bays where it air-cools to form crystalline. Produced during the separation of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain its most means. Cement content can be improved using fine blast furnace slag is removed from one end the! With 2 % of cement used in the laboratory some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, stone... Furnace fuel rate increases and the productivity decreases, Thompson, R. Nicoll!

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