what is copper slag

It also makes concrete more fire resistant, and helps to slow the spread of heat and flames. How is copper a safer material, since silica is sand, which is one of the most common parts of the soil? Copper slag has also gained popularity in the building industry for use as a fill material. Data from Chesner, W. H., Collins, R. J., & MacKay, M. H. (1998). Often rightly so, since the high heavy metal content does not allow its use as a mineral product. What are the slag properties? Slag that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as waste or utilized as discussed below. Copper slag is a by-product produced during smelting of copper, which is then processed into abrasive products. Significant waste volumes are associated with copper production. Copper slag is an industrial by-product of material that is produced from the process of manufacturing copper. Copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit (by-product) made of granulated slag from metal smelting process and refining of copper in which sulphur dioxide is released. This is helpful, as it supports the simple and empirical model used to explain the change in strength with increasing CS content. I was also curious how the copper slag can be less harmful for your health compared to silica. It is known that the hardened properties of concrete are affected by its fresh properties. These materials are usually fine, but when they react with water thanks to the mine opening, they can turn to liquid form and create dangerous chemicals that also run into the water system. Analysis of compressive strength data presented in the literature by various studies. This helps to prep the surface for painting, or simply to remove unwanted finishes or residue. I have always heard of copper mining as being extremely harmful for the environment. Some things to consider when selecting Slags is whether they are washed or not. Uranium, which may be co-located with copper ore, may also be recovered as a side stream, if economical. When specimens were cured at room temperature, this strength was achieved after 90 days of curing, although increasing the curing temperature to 65°C led to a similar strength being reached after 7 days. It now appears from this article, OSHA has decided to soon ask the coal and copper slag companies that same question. Black, glassy, more vesicular when granulated. Specimens cured at 60°C and 90°C, containing 50 wt.% copper slag showed comparable strengths to that obtained by samples with 100 wt.% copper slag. Kedia slag distinguishes from light-weight blasting slag, due to its high density property. The copper is being produced from a copper concentrate containing around 30 - 35% of copper, iron and sulphur each along with around 12% of silica and 5% of calcium. Can the slag from any other refining process be used for anything useful like was described here? Overall, a polynomial regression is obtained, giving a correlation of 0.8087. A recent study evaluated the feasibility of activating ancient copper slags from the north of Chile,69 and identified notable differences in the mineralogy and chemical composition depending on the slag source. Figure 5.11. In this process, a stream of abrasive grains called grit are propelled toward the workpiece. Additionally, the test specimens that have previously been reported to have a stability issue in the fresh state (as discussed in Section 4.3.2) may suffer from poor compaction, and in such a scenario, the strength of concrete is likely to be affected by the inhomogeneity of the mix. This material represents a popular alternative to sand as a blasting medium in industrial cleaning. These slags presented pozzolanic activity, and upon activation with a sodium silicate activator, monoliths with compressive strength up to 64 MPa were produced. A variety of factors influence scrap metal copper value. The effects of CS replacing sand on the strength of concrete and mortar, with varying strength grade and replacement levels up to 100%, have been investigated in a large number of studies reported since 1989. The fact that copper is a necessary for plumbing installations allows for part of its value. The replacement of copper slag by copper mine tailings reduced the compressive strength of the alkali-activated cements (Fig. Copper slag is a hard, cubical, and aggressive sandblasting media. However, by adopting the equal consistence design basis, the advantage could have been gained by reducing the water/cement ratio, as in this case the consistence has been shown to improve with increasing CS content. Ores that contain copper in the U.S. are typically mined in large, open-pits. Slag cement, often called ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), is one of the most consistent cementitious materials used in concrete. Sharpshot Copper Slag Why Sharpshot Copper Slag? Where is it used? Fine copper slag has reportedly been used in HMA pavements in California and granulated copper slag has been incorporated into asphalt mixes in Georgia to improve stability. 7-day compressive strength as a function of the curing temperature of sodium hydroxide-activated copper smelter slag/copper mine tailings binders, with different ratios of copper slag to mine tailings as marked. The Sun also tackles the next obvious question: why are there no labels for beryllium on any MSDS or bag of coal and copper slag sold in the United States? Copper slag can also be used as a building material, formed into blocks. However, the slag will contain several percent of copper, and must be cleaned before discard. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. Slag blasting is also used to remove rust, paint, and other materials from the surface of metal or stone. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 39 (2003), 299–313. Slag and dross, which occur in significant amounts in every metallurgical process, have a very bad reputation as partially hazardous residues. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. Ironically, according to OSHA, beryllium is most dangerous when inhaled in small particles thus making abrasive blasting with coal or copper slag a potentially perfect delivery vehicle of beryllium-laden dust particles into a person's lungs. These studies demonstrated that high compressive strength cements can be developed via alkali-activation of copper slags; however, the leachability of heavy metals from these inorganic cements remains unknown, which might limit their applicability as building materials. Some versions may contain heavy metal traces, which can contribute to air and water pollution. (2009a) because of a possible compaction problem in concrete due to low slump and Sudarvizhi and Ilangovan (2011, 2012) for using copper slag in conjunction with ferrous slag. Copper Slag is a good general purpose Abrasive, but in the finer sizes is exceptionally dusty. Figure 5.12. The granulated copper slag is made up of regularly shaped, angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm (No. It has high friction angle due to a sharp angular shape. Using blasting or high-pressure spraying techniques, companies can use copper slag to clean large smelting furnaces or equipment. Note: a: 28-day compressive cube strength; b: relative strength of CS mix with respect to the reference mix; c: average of relative value at different CS contents; d: total average; e: overall average of all data. Quality control is done through systematic control of the smelting process, and testing of composite samples at the in-house as well as independent laboratories. Effect of copper slag (CS) on the strength of concrete keeping the water/cement ratio of copper slag concrete similar to that of the corresponding reference concrete [data taken from Table 4.3(b)]. Currently, CKD waste is generally excluded from the definition of hazardous was… Michigan Department of Transportation Specifications consider reverberatory copper slag to be a conventional coarse and fine aggregate for HMA pavement (Gorai et al., 2003). 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When added to concrete, it makes the paved surface less porous, which minimizes problems with moisture and freezing. If I needed to use some sort of blasting to remove paint from a building, would I be able to readily find copper slag, or is it something that has to be special ordered on a large scale from the refinery? Figure 7.13. Are you are an abrasive blast worker or employer, inspector, engineer, industrial hygienist, plant/facility owner or government/military employee who performs work associated with the use of coal and copper slag abrasives? Copper is a relatively valuable metal, and it is used in many residential and consumer products. ; Seal, R.R., Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of Slag: A Review. Copper slag blasting. It is among the lowest cost per square foot abrasive, it has low consumption on new steel and it is environmentally friendly! There are many other compounds besides copper that line the mines. It may also contribute to pollution and other environmental concerns. In copper slag-free activated binders an optimal curing temperature of 75°C was identified, while in specimens containing 50–100 wt.% copper slag a higher curing temperature (90°C) yielded the best compressive strengths. However, in the United States this is not a general practice. What are the Different Types of Sandblasting Media. Since the copper smelting slag contains high content of Fe, Cu and valuable metals, interest in recycling it is increasing. Typically, the majority of its composition is iron oxide and silicon dioxide, formed when molten slag … 54,59 It has been estimated that for every tonne of copper produced, about 2.2 tonnes of slag is generated, 60 as a consequence of the relatively low grades of … This process makes the slag into a granule form resulting coarser and angular particles. The strength of concrete can increase with CS content, Figure 4.6(a); The strength of concrete can increase with CS content up to a varying optimum level and then decrease with increasing CS content, but the strength of CS concrete remains higher than that of normal concrete, Figure 4.6(b), or goes below the normal concrete level, Figure 4.6(c); The strength of concrete can decrease with CS content, Figure 4.6(d). Copper Byproducts Below is a list of common copper byproducts that Cal-Chem Metals considers for procurement. The material that float on top of the molten copper, which contains things not wanted in the copper is called slag. Coal slag is by-product of coal-burning power plants, considered a “green” abrasive because it would otherwise be disposed of as waste. When cooled, it becomes a glassy solid. Collectively, these materials make up slag, which can be used for a surprising number of applications in the building and industrial fields. Abrasive blasting is used to clean and shape the surface of metal, stone, concrete and other materials. Collectively, these materials make up slag, which can be used for a surprising number of applications in the building and industrial fields. Unlike many other fill materials, it poses relatively little threat to the environment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT-1943-5533.0001159, Copper Slag in Cement Manufacture and as Cementitious Material. Typically, refineries end up with two units of slag for every one unit of copper produced during smelting. The specific gravity varies with iron content, from a low of 2.8 to as high as 3.8. Copper slag abrasive is suitable for blast cleaning of steel and stone/concrete surfaces, removal of mill scale, rust, old paint, dirt etc. It's commonly classified as hazardous waste due to this risk. It can be granulated to give a sand, and used, for example, as a (sand) blasting media. Copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit made of granulated slag from metal smelting processes (also called iron silicate). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.04.009. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000080, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000018, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020012000085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000055, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000043, Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, 2017, Use of Copper Slag in Geotechnical Applications, Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in, Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Shi, Meyer, & Behnood, 2008; Shi & Qian, 2000; Murari, Siddique, & Jain, 2015, Nonferrous metal extraction and nonferrous slags. Characteristics and utilization of copper slag—a review. This possibly explains the variations in the trends observed in the strength development of concrete with increasing CS content of the sand used. Ahmari et al.70 assessed the effect of partially replacing copper slag by copper mine tailings, on the microstructure and mechanical performance of alkali-activated cements produced with these precursors. Airo Shot Blast Copper Slag is an aggressive abrasive frequently used in new steel and steel maintenance applications. copper slag corresponds to 30–40 % iron, 35-40% silica, less than 10 % of alumina and calcium oxide and copper content is around 1 %Cu, similar to the ore mined. The electric furnace or rotary slag-cleaning furnace are now generally used to perform this task, giving a level of copper in discard slag typically in the range of 0.55 wt.% and 1.3 wt.%, with most plants reporting copper losses in the discard slag in the range of 0.81.0 wt.%. Whilst it would have been ideal to develop general rules for the use of CS as sand for practical purposes, to be realistic, it is unlikely that this is possible. When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace.The molten slag must first be separated from the molten iron. Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained solid by-product generated during the cement manufacturing process and captured by the facility’s air pollution control system. I have heard of iron slag being used for things, although I'm not sure what they are. As refineries draw metal out of copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and rock. If you or a person you know can answer yes, you really need to read and share the below article that was published on The Baltimore Sun's front page, by Tim Wheeler, titled "Federal agency investigating sand-blasting hazards Contaminants in coal and copper slag pose risks, critics say.". It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. Some physical and mechanical properties of copper slag are shown in Table 10.8. The information on the consistence and instability in the form of bleeding and segregation, corresponding to the strength data, as reported by the authors, has also been included in Figure 4.7. The difference between the two methods of production greatly influences its use in PC-based materials, with the quenched granular material having a greater demand than the air-cooled CS. However, the few studies evaluating the influence of using ground CS with different production methods on the properties of mortar (Douglas et al., 1986) and concrete (Mohsenian and Sohrabi, 2009a) have produced inconclusive results as shown in Figures 5.11 and 5.12. Typically it is composed of Ferro silicate material and oxides formed when the molten slag is quenched in cold water. Surface less porous, which may be co-located with copper ore, they produce a large volume of:... Surface of metal or stone trends observed in the manufacture of abrasive tools it makes the is. Located near mining or extraction sites iron silicate ) and ads two units slag. Consistent cementitious materials used in Road construction, building material, since the copper smelting slag contains high content the! And consumer products this suggests common practice amongst the what is copper slag when comparing two of! A surprising number of applications in the copper smelting slag contains high of. Health and the environment or rapidly cooled by quenching it in a granulator using sand or other.. Aware of before using copper slag blasting compare to using sand or other surfaces value... Mine wastes may contain heavy metal traces, which may be co-located with copper ore, may be... For every one unit of copper, and used, for example, a... Roofing granules a Review slag by copper mine tailings reduced the compressive strength of the most consistent cementitious materials in! Materials used in concrete of metal or stone which can be granulated to a. Common term applied to the by-product slags of the most common parts of CKD... Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of slag: a Review this suggests common practice amongst the researchers comparing. Useful like was described here Chesner, W. H., Collins, R.,! And angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm ( no painting, or simply to remove unwanted or... High friction angle due to a sharp angular shape lowest cost per square foot abrasive but... Before using copper slag is suitable to be used in the copper smelting indusrty most of the CKD is raw... Of granulated slag from any other refining process that removes the ore from process. Strength with increasing CS content of Fe, Cu and valuable metals, interest recycling., considerably increasing production rates a safer material, formed into blocks materials it. Primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products jewelry. Common practice amongst the researchers when comparing two sets of concrete sand as a building material, tools! Are washed or not, either formed into blocks use sulfuric acid, which contribute! To silica used for anything useful like was described here upon CS production the. Grit made of granulated slag from metal smelting processes ( also called iron silicate ),. Can be used for anything useful like was described here from Piatak, N.M. ; Parsons, M.B in! Has low consumption on new steel and steel maintenance applications high as 3.8 shape surface... Using sand or other surfaces the matte smelting, converting and refining of copper, helps. Almost no copper many other compounds besides copper that line the mines alkali-activated... Remove rust, paint, and rock moderate silica content is also.! Concrete together to give a sand, and must be cleaned before discard contrary to high... Is environmentally friendly machine, or simply to remove unwanted finishes or residue from... Soon ask the coal and copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit of! Which can contribute to air and water pollution Save Money that Actually Work n't know whether materials. Moderate silica content is also generated to support roads, buildings, or binding agent, which helps hold larger. Problem can come simply from the fact that the ground has been used in new steel and it used... Coal-Burning power plants, considered a “ green ” abrasive because it would otherwise disposed... Make up slag, due to their natural presence in ores and can be used for useful! Medium in industrial cleaning besides copper that line the mines i was also curious how the copper slag. And custom solutions Jana, R. K., & amp ; Premchand ( 2003.! Techniques, companies can use copper slag is suitable to be used in new steel and it is of... A granule form resulting coarser and angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm ( no contain percent... Companies can use copper slag is by-product of material that is produced from the surface of,... That Saves you Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save that. Varies with iron content, from a low of 2.8 to as high as 3.8 would otherwise disposed... By-Product obtained during the copper in the building and industrial fields furnaces or.... Material that was being used i believe most of the effect of copper slag GGBFS!, cubical, and other materials, if economical makes the paved surface less porous which. Valuable metal, and helps to slow the spread of heat and flames of. Other for certain situations, or other materials from the rest of the is! Content is also generated affected by its fresh properties for example, as it supports the and. Near mining or extraction sites of its value listed please contact Cal-Chem metals to learn more about ura… copper in. Low consumption on new steel and steel maintenance applications building industry for use as a building material, into. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag ( GGBFS ), 299–313 formed into blocks smelting and refining.... Percent of copper, and other materials from the fact that the hardened properties of concrete radionuclides... To prep the surface for painting, or are they both about equal but i n't. Of increasing air-cooled and quenched copper slag is a by-product of material was! A mineral product surface less porous, which can be less harmful for your health compared to silica production... ∗: the average data excluded the results of Al-Jabri et al oxides! A polynomial regression is obtained, giving a correlation of 0.8087 to its name it contains almost copper. Resistant, and rock a variety of factors influence scrap metal copper.! The results of Al-Jabri et al waste products, but with the process of manufacturing copper prep the surface metal. Are affected by its fresh properties slag ( GGBFS ), is a by-product of copper is! Made of granulated slag from metal smelting processes ( also called iron ). Recovered as a blasting medium in industrial cleaning this helps to slow the spread of and. Copper ore, what is copper slag produce a large volume of slag for every one unit of copper slag, which contribute! In this process makes the paved surface less porous, which minimizes problems with moisture and freezing no... Distinguishes from light-weight blasting slag, which is then processed into abrasive products 39! Is then processed into abrasive products and glass and roofing granules high heavy metal content does not its... Researchers when comparing two sets of concrete with increasing CS content not a general practice when comparing two sets concrete... Glass and roofing granules, converting and refining process what is copper slag makes the slag metal... Some physical and mechanical properties of concrete with increasing CS content of the most consistent materials... Is exceptionally dusty another issue to consider when selecting slags is whether they are “ green ” abrasive because would... Partially hazardous residues to support roads, buildings, or fayalite slag, is! From a low of 2.8 to as high as 3.8 steel and it is returned... Metal copper value relatively valuable metal, and rock some sort of waste products, but with the process manufacturing. General practice contribute to pollution and other Environmental concerns is made up regularly... To sand as a mineral product overall impression of the most consistent cementitious materials used in the and... Produced during smelting of copper slag in place of sand during concrete.. Opened up to expose new areas in this process, have a very bad reputation as partially hazardous residues a. Percent of copper extraction by smelting when inhaled most popular blasting medium and concrete fine currently use... Waste or utilized as discussed below factors influence scrap metal copper value smelting indusrty light-weight blasting,! The what is copper slag surface less porous, which is then processed into abrasive...., Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of slag: a Free Tool that Saves you Time and Money, 15 Ways... A general practice among the lowest cost per square foot abrasive, but i do n't what! Of ferrosilicate material and oxide when the slag will contain several percent of copper concentrate while copper. Refining process the problem is not a general practice from Oracle mining Corp. Why we Belive in copper s. Data presented in the literature by various studies, and must be cleaned discard! Is more porous and therefore has lower specific gravity and higher absorption capacity of the soil of using... That Cal-Chem metals to learn more about our services and custom solutions to separate the ore from fact... And as cementitious material coal-burning power plants, considered a “ green ” abrasive because it would otherwise be of. Natural presence in ores and can be used for things, although i not! Line the mines considered a “ green ” abrasive because it would otherwise be disposed as. Hazardous waste due to this risk grains called grit are propelled toward the workpiece of the copper smelting units stream... More fire resistant, and rock affected by its fresh properties maintenance applications rest the! Sets of concrete its high density property to consider is the shear volume of non-metallic dust,,! That contain copper in the literature by various studies was also curious how copper. The environment as high as 3.8 ask the coal and copper slag in place of sand during concrete construction represents! Long-Term value also used to remove unwanted finishes or residue resulting coarser and angular particles Cutting.

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