dutch golden age

Discover Delft, home of Vermeer and William of Orange, of Delft Blue pottery, and Golden Age art. Play media. Dutch civilization in the Golden Age (1609–1713), The period of French dominance (1795–1813), The Kingdom of Holland and the French Empire (1806–13), The Kingdom of the Netherlands (1814–1918). Protestants included, along with the predominant Calvinists of the Reformed Church, both Lutherans in small numbers and Mennonites (Anabaptists), who were politically passive but often prospered in business. The 17th century, also known as the Dutch Golden Age, laid the foundation for the Netherlands as we know it today. These were works in which a proud new nation took account of its birth pangs and its growth to greatness. Discover Dordrecht, a city that was already booming before the Dutch Golden Age, and which played an essential role in the formation of the Dutch Republic. Mass conversion to Calvinism had been confined mainly to the earlier decades of the Eighty Years’ War, when Roman Catholics still frequently bore the burden of their preference for the rule of the Catholic monarchs in the southern Netherlands. Home/ Künstler/ Kunstbewegungen / Dutch Golden Age. Roughly spanning the 17th century, the first section was characterized by the Thirty Years’ War, a war fought across central Europe between 1618 and 1648 that resulted in one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The museums that devote attention to the Netherlands’ glorious history often also explore this dark side. It is named after the Dutch artist, Frans Hals (ca. During the 17 th century, driven by new freedom from Spanish Catholic rule, the Dutch Republic experienced a surge in economic and cultural prominence. The first section is characterized by the Eighty Years' War, which ended in 1648. The sea was one of the most popular themes presented as the mysteriou… Find out why Rembrandt and his contemporaries in Amsterdam owe much of their success to the wealthy merchants who had the means to fill their homes with art and commission prominent works, and relive the Golden Age today via Amsterdam’s top museums. Amsterdam (139988974).jpg 1,080 × 720; 65 KB. The economic prosperity of the Dutch Republic in this “golden century” was matched by an extraordinary flowering of cultural achievement, which drew from the country’s prosperity not only the direct resources of financial nourishment but also a driving and sustaining sense of purpose and vigour. Excise and other indirect taxes made the Dutch cost of living one of the highest in Europe, although there was considerable variance between the different areas of the republic. But the Reformed preachers were thwarted in their efforts to oppress or drive out other religions, to which a far-reaching toleration was extended. Hooft or the poets Constantijn Huygens and Joost van den Vondel (the last of whom was also a distinguished playwright) wrote with a power and a purity worthy of the best that France and England produced at that time. Jews settled in the Netherlands to escape persecution; the Sephardic Jews from Spain and Portugal were more influential in economic, social, and intellectual life, while the Ashkenazim from eastern Europe formed a stratum of impoverished workers, especially in Amsterdam. 1630s, Frans Hals Muuseum, Haarlem, Netherlands. With trade came wealth, and with wealth, a blossoming of arts and science. The wealth from trade spread through to Middelburg, which was an important base for the Dutch East India Company and became known for the ornate Golden Age architecture that remains today. Rembrandt and other Dutch Masters from the Golden Age have continued to hold a prominent place in art history through the centuries. There was, too, a good deal of mingling between the burgher regents who possessed great wealth and political power and the landed gentry and lesser nobility who formed the traditional elite. Antique print of the Batticaloa Fort, 1672.jpg 1,280 × 1,046; 1,010 KB. Belastbar bis 30 kg. Haarlem is home to the Frans Hals Museum. Figures such as the historian P.C. 16 Kunstwerke. The social structure that evolved with the economic transformation of Dutch life was complex and was marked by the predominance of the business classes that later centuries called the bourgeoisie, although with some significant differences. Frans Hals . AMH-6134-NA Bird's eye view of the fort of Batticaloa.jpg 2,400 × 1,938; 895 KB. The Dutch Golden Age is one of the finest examples of independence breeding cultural pride. The Dutch Golden Age had developed its own style in depicting landscape paintings based on lower horizontal levels to place emphasis on the ground. The debate involved the issue not so much of centralization versus provincialism as where the leadership of the republic properly lay, whether in the house of Orange or in the province of Holland and notably its greatest city, Amsterdam. Yet the economic burden of repeated wars caused the Dutch to become one of the most heavily taxed peoples in Europe. The setting the artwork was often out in nature showing the cold climate and region of the nation. The Dutch Golden Age (17th century) was a period of great wealth for the Dutch Republic. Media in category "Dutch Golden Age" The following 50 files are in this category, out of 50 total. Sex, Drugs and Rock 'n' Roll in the Dutch Golden Age Little Dutch LD4373 Balance-Fahrrad für Kinder, Mehrfarbig Sitzhöhe: 31 bis 35 cm. Lenker nicht höhenverstellbar. The physicist Christiaan Huygens approached Isaac Newton himself in power of mind and importance of scientific contribution. Some of the favourite subject lines of painters to depict include rivers, meadows, cattle, and forests. Another great philosopher of the 17th century who resided in the Dutch Republic was the Frenchman René Descartes. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. Meet Frans Hals in Haarlem, along with the other immigrant artists who changed the course of art history. The Dutch Golden Age began to decline with the start of the Franco-Dutch War, when the French invaded the Netherlands in 1672. Visit the Netherlands from home (COVID-19), relive the Golden Age today via Amsterdam’s top museums, Learn why Hoorn and Enkhuizen also flourished. These developments were spurred on by forward-thinking authorities that implemented policies in The Hague, the new center of power in Golden Age Holland. Learn why Hoorn and Enkhuizen also flourished during the era, transforming from fishing villages to thriving centers of trade, where earning a living was easier and outsiders were welcomed. Dutch Golden Age Kunstbewegung Hendrick Cornelisz. Holland.com is the official website for the Netherlands as a tourist destination. Individual companies were organized for each venture, but the companies were united by command of the States General in 1602 in order to reduce the costs and increase the security of such perilous and complex undertakings; the resulting United East India Company established bases throughout the Indian Ocean, notably in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), mainland India, and the Indonesian archipelago. The century from the conclusion of the Twelve Years’ Truce in 1609 until either the death of Prince William III in 1702 or the conclusion of the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 is known in Dutch history as the “Golden Age.” It was a unique era of political, economic, and cultural greatness during which the little nation on the North Sea ranked among the most powerful and influential in Europe and the world. The Dutch Golden Age (17th century) was a period of great wealth for the Dutch Republic. The goods that returned from Asia and Africa captivated the European market, such as the iconic blue and white pottery that was then famously reproduced in Golden Age Delft. Although the East India fleets that returned annually with cargoes of spices and other valuables provided huge profits for the shareholders, the East India trade of the 17th and 18th centuries never provided more than a modest fraction of Dutch earnings from European trade. Your official guide for visiting the Netherlands. Despite unusually open contacts with the Christian society around them, Dutch Jews continued to live in their own communities under their own laws and rabbinic leadership. The lute’s cultural impact throughout the Dutch Golden Age can be compared to that of the piano in the 19th century. The Dutch East India Company, like its rival English counterpart, was a trading company granted quasi-sovereign powers in the lands under its dominion. Summary of Dutch Golden Age Painting. Outdoor artistry was a popular art form painters clang to as their imagination aided in the work. There are exhibitions and city walks throughout the Netherlands that revolve around the history of slavery and colonialism. The history of the Dutch Golden Age can be found all over cities along the route, from Middelburg in the south to Hoorn and Enkhuizen in the north of the Netherlands. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an dutch golden age an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten, handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops zu finden. What was striking was the comparative simplicity even of the wealthy classes and the sense of status and dignity among the ordinary people, although the exuberance that had earlier marked the society was toned down or even eliminated by the strict Calvinist morality preached and to some extent enforced by the official church. Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, detail of an oil painting by Joachim von Sandrart, 1641; in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Dutch workers were in general well paid, but they were also burdened by unusually high taxes. The website is managed by the Netherlands Bureau for Tourism and Congresses. Group portraits of regents and other influential citizens adorned town halls and charitable establishments, while still lifes and anecdotal paintings of popular life hung in profusion in private homes. There were also other sects emphasizing mystical experiences or rationalist theologies, notably the Collegiants among the latter. The common people comprised both a numerous class of artisans and small businessmen, whose prosperity provided the base for the generally high Dutch standard of living, and a very large class of sailors, shipbuilders, fishermen, and other workers. Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence. The half century that followed was marked by consolidation rather than continued expansion, under the impact of the revived competition from the other nations, notably England and France, whose policies of mercantilism were to a large degree directed against the near monopoly of the Dutch over the trade and shipping of Europe. Dutch literature, which knew great creativity during the Golden Age, remained the possession of the relatively small number of those who spoke and read Dutch. It was the universal instrument for solo music-making, as well as in ensembles and to accompany singers, mainly associated with the social elite - the aristocracy and the prosperous burghers. The Dutch Golden Age More than a selection of highlights from an acclaimed museum, the exhibition demonstrates the interests of artists and collectors during the Dutch Golden Age. Political theorists shared the same concerns, although the effort to fit new experience and ideas into the traditional categories derived from Aristotle and Roman law created an air of unreality about their work, perhaps even more than was true of political thinkers elsewhere in Europe. To expel the invaders the Dutch broke the dykes, flooding much of the land, and, as a result, the Dutch still refer to 1672 as "The Disaster Year." Admiraliteit Hoorn 1606 (westfries museum).jpg 250 × 147; 10 KB. Das Goldene Zeitalter (niederländisch de Gouden Eeuw) bezeichnet in der Geschichte der Niederlande eine rund einhundert Jahre andauernde wirtschaftliche und kulturelle Blütezeit, die ungefähr das 17. Discover Golden Age Leiden, an era of trade, science, tolerance and world-changing art. Taco Dibbits, the director of the Rijksmuseum, said in an interview that the museum will keep using the term Golden Age, especially when it refers to 17th-century Dutch … Belastbar bis 30 kg. It was a grandeur that rested upon the economic expansion that continued with scarcely an interruption until 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years’ War. Read more about the organization and get to know the Holland.com editors. Discover the Dutch Golden Age with a trip to the cities that determined the face of the Netherlands and the world in the 17th century. The Golden Age - Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century is a modern and varied historiography that not only complies with scholarly insights but also makes fascinating reading for anyone wishing to become acquainted with a period that was so interesting in terms of its artistic achievements. Among those are the paintings of the Dutch Masters: the beauty and depth of their … Sex, Drugs and Rock 'n' Roll in the Dutch Golden Age Little Dutch LD4373 Balance-Fahrrad für Kinder, Mehrfarbig Sitzhöhe: 31 bis 35 cm. Architecture remained at a lesser level, merging with some success the native traditions of brick buildings and gable roofs and fashionable Renaissance styles. Haarlem in the Dutch Golden Age: Reyer Claesz Suycker, View of Haarlem, ca. Catholics lost the traditional form of church government by bishops, whose place was taken by a papal vicar directly dependent upon Rome and supervising what was in effect a mission; the political authorities were generally tolerant of secular priests but not of Jesuits, who were vigorous proselytizers and were linked to Spanish interests. Music was hampered by the Calvinists’ antipathy to what they saw as frivolity. The Dutch Golden Age spanned 150 years (1600-1750), and exhibitions in museums throughout Amsterdam bring the era’s characteristics of prosperity and … Only in the latter part of the century did Dutch historians begin to express a sense that political grandeur might be transient. Meet the ‘Girl with a Pearl Earring’ and see the palaces on a tour of Golden Age The Hague. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Dutch prosperity was built not only upon the “mother trades”—to the Baltic and to France and the Iberian lands—but also upon the overseas trades with Africa, Asia, and America. Travel back to the Dutch Golden Age in Middelburg and explore its rich trading history. The social “betters” of Dutch aristocracy were only to a limited extent landed nobles, most of whom lived in the economically less advanced inland provinces. But as mercantile competition became stiffer, the rate of such taxation could not be safely increased, and the burden therefore fell increasingly on the consumer. See masterpieces in beautiful museums, visit the manors and monuments, stroll along picturesque canals and admire beautiful harbors, along which the stepped gables and impressive warehouses from the 17th century still stand. Amsterdam became a vibrant cultural hub, and many of the achievements and advances of the time have lost none of their influence. The West India Company, established in 1621, was built upon shakier economic foundations; trade in commodities was less important than the trade in slaves, in which the Dutch were preeminent in the 17th century, and privateering, which operated primarily out of Zeeland ports and preyed upon Spanish (and other) shipping. The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the history of the Netherlands in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The attempt of the Spanish monarchs (who also ruled Portugal and its possessions from 1580 to 1640) to exclude Dutch merchants and shippers from the lucrative colonial commerce with East Asia led the Dutch to trade directly with the East Indies. Organ music was barred from services in Reformed churches, although town authorities frequently continued its performance at other times. Only the celebrated philosopher Benedict de Spinoza, an outsider by origin and character (a Jew by birth and upbringing), elevated these political questions to the level of universality. The history of the Dutch Golden Age is still very much alive and can be experienced in the cities along the route from Middelburg in the south to Hoorn & Enkhuizen in the north of Holland. Sculpture remained a largely foreign art. Although the Dutch tenaciously resisted the new competition, the long-distance trading system of Europe was transformed from one largely conducted through the Netherlands, with the Dutch as universal buyer-seller and shipper, to one of multiple routes and fierce competitiveness. Relive this prosperous era in Holland’s history. The farmers, producing chiefly cash crops, prospered in a country that needed large amounts of food and raw materials for its urban (and seagoing) population. One of the characteristic aspects of modern Dutch society began to evolve in this period—the vertical separation of society into “pillars” (zuilen) identified with the different Dutch religions. But this period also had a dark side, which is discussed more openly these days. The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) caused trade to expand quickly, which attracted immigrants and stimulated the growth of the main cities and ports.In this period, the arts and sciences flourished as is clearly demonstrated by the famous paintings by the Dutch Masters: Rembrandt, Hals, Vermeer, and Steen. Take a stroll through Golden Age Dordrecht and discover a city which shaped Dutch history. Some of the greatest work, from the brushes of such painters as Frans Hals, Jan Steen, and Johannes Vermeer, were painted for these markets, but the greatest of Dutch painters, Rembrandt van Rijn, broke through the boundaries of the group portrait to create works with his own extraordinary mood and inward meaning. The Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century. The new prosperity and intellectual and religious freedom turned the Netherlands into a safe haven for European immigrants, refugees from Flanders, and people who were persecuted in Spain and Portugal. Dutch, c.1562 - 1640. Successful though some Jews were in business, they were by no means the central force in the rise and expansion of Dutch capitalism. The controversy over whether the young Prince William had any right by birth to the offices of his forefathers probed the fundamental character of the republic, for even a quasi-hereditary stadtholdership created an incipient monarchy within the traditional structure of aristocratic republicanism. Indeed, no clear pattern can be detected of religious affiliation affecting the growth of the Dutch business community; if anything, it was the official Dutch Reformed Church that fulminated most angrily against capitalist attitudes and practices, while the merely tolerated faiths often saw their adherents, to whom economic but not political careers were open, prospering and even amassing fortunes. Nonetheless, the wealth earned during a long century of prosperity made the United Provinces a land of great riches, with more capital by far than could find outlet in domestic investment. Step back into the Golden Age and discover the art and people that shaped Haarlem 400 years ago. Most of the Dutch elite were wealthy townsmen whose fortunes were made as merchants and financiers, but they frequently shifted their activities to government, becoming what the Dutch called regents, members of the ruling bodies of town and province, and drawing most of their incomes from these posts and from investments in government bonds and real estate. The oldest art museum in Holland is located in Haarlem. Scientific activity in the United Provinces also reached a high level. Take a trip back to Golden Age Leiden, where the city’s appetite for innovation influenced Rembrandt van Rijn’s early career. Learn about the Dutch East India Company (also called the United East India Company) and its role in the Dutch Republic's commercial empire. 171 Kunstwerke. Return to 17th-century Hoorn and Enkhuizen. The West India Company had to be reorganized several times during its precarious existence, while the East India Company survived until the end of the 18th century. The art whose achievements rank at the very top was painting, which rested upon the broad patronage of a prosperous population. Taxes were imposed on the transit trade in and out of the country. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. There are exhibitions and city walks throughout the Netherlands that revolve around the history of slavery. The quality of life was marked by less disparity between classes than prevailed elsewhere, although the difference between a great merchant’s home on the Herengracht in Amsterdam and a dockworker’s hovel was all too obvious. Calvinist Protestantism became the officially recognized religion of the country, politically favoured and economically supported by government. The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) caused trade to expand quickly, which attracted immigrants and stimulated the growth of the main cities and ports. Stroll along its wide boulevards and experience masterpieces like Vermeer’s ‘Girl With a Pearl Earring’ in its museums. Sizable islands of Roman Catholicism remained in most of the United Provinces, while Gelderland and the northern parts of Brabant and Flanders conquered by the States General were overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, as they remain today. The Dutch golden age (1602 - 1702) A century initiated in 1548 with a war for independence with epic conquests, major scientific breakthroughs, beautiful art, true global trade, heroic battles and full of human tragedies Welcome to the Dutch golden age The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the era from 1581 to 1672, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. Dutch, c.1580 - 1666. The next surge of political debate came after mid-century, when for a little more than two decades the country was governed without a prince of Orange as stadtholder. He lived there for two decades while engaged in studies that would help transform modern thought. This was reflected in the first instance by a notable series of historical works: the contemporary chronicles of the revolt by Pieter Bor and Emanuel van Meteren; the highly polished account by Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, a masterpiece of narration and judgment in the spirit of Tacitus; the heavily factual chronicle of Lieuwe van Aitzema, with its interspersed commentary of skeptical wisdom; Abraham de Wicquefort’s history of the Republic (principally under the first stadtholderless administration); and the histories and biographies by Geeraert Brandt. Vroom. In addition, the Remonstrants, who were driven out of the Reformed Church after the Synod of Dort (Dordrecht; 1618–19), continued as a small sect with considerable influence among the regents. Theorists such as the Gouda official Vrancken in the days of the foundation of the republic and Grotius in the early 17th century portrayed the republic as essentially unchanged since the early Middle Ages or even since antiquity—a country where sovereignty resided in provincial and town assemblies, which had partly lost their control to counts and kings before regaining it in the revolt against Philip II. Lenker nicht höhenverstellbar. Subjects less common in the previous century were widely embraced, among them, landscapes, genre scenes, and still lifes. 3. Netherlands - Netherlands - Dutch civilization in the Golden Age (1609–1713): The century from the conclusion of the Twelve Years’ Truce in 1609 until either the death of Prince William III in 1702 or the conclusion of the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 is known in Dutch history as the “Golden Age.” It was a unique era of political, economic, and cultural greatness during which the little nation on the North Sea ranked … An influx of trade boosted commerce, leading to the rise of a large middle and merchant class in the market for the … George Wachter and David Pollack describe the impact of the rise of the merchant class in 17th Century Holland and its effect on the artwork of that time. The Storm on the Sea of Galilee is a painting from 1633 by the Dutch Golden Age painter Rembrandt van Rijn, depicting the miracle of Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee, as depicted in the fourth … The engineer and mathematician Simon Stevin and the microscopists Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Jan Swammerdam rank in the front of their fields. This population boom strengthened Holland’s position as a global leader and contributed to some of the greatest achievements in art and academia. As merchants sailed to other – for them – unknown continents, the Dutch East India Company – the world’s first multinational company – was established, and the six Dutch ports that were home to its chambers thrived throughout this era. Explore the Golden Age in Amsterdam, when world trade, incredible wealth and famous art converged. Although public practice of Catholicism was forbidden, interference with private worship was rare, even if Catholics sometimes bought their security with bribes to local Protestant authorities. Though an outsider, Descartes found in the Netherlands a freedom from intellectual inquisitions and personal involvements. J.P. Sweelinck, detail of an oil painting on wood by Gerrit Sweelinck; in the Haags Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. The great organist-composer J.P. Sweelinck was more influential in encouraging the creative wave in Germany than among his own countrymen. Landscape painters, notably Jacob van Ruisdael, captured the distinctive Dutch flatland, broad skies with massed clouds, and muted light. Many museums will enrich any interested visitor with a rare understanding of Holland and its illustrious history, which however also had its darker sides. The Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century saw Amsterdam emerge as one of the world’s most important centers of trade. 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