fluid pressure and its measurement pdf

Assumptions The air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation with elevation is negligible due to its low density), and thus we can determine the pressure at the air-water interface. Fluid Pressure and its Measurement Points : Fluid Pressure and its Measurement, Pressure, Atmospheric Pressure, Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, Plezometer Tube, Manometer, Simple Manometer Pressure We see that whenever a liquid (such as water oil, etc) is contained in a vessel. • Vapor pressure (P v): The pressure exerted by its vapor in phase equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. Friction between the fluid and the moving boundaries causes the fluid to shear. It is mainly the static pressure which is of importance in ‘hydro-static system’, as the height of head of liquid and velocity of flow are usually too small. For the English system of units this could simply be psi and for the SI system it could be kPa. Solution The pressure in a pressurized water tank is measured by a multi-fluid manometer. pressure is derived from the definition that a perfect vacuum is the complete absence of any gas. In the English system of units, pressure is expressed as "psi" or lbf/in 2. In this type of manometer there is dependent on the velocity of flow. Other pressure units of measure are the Atmosphere and the Bar, which are both roughly equivalent to atmospheric pressure at sea level on a “standard” day. Laminar shear of fluid between two plates. Introduction to Pressure in Fluid Mechanics . dependent upon the back pressure, i.e. Many devices are based on hydrostatics such as barometers and manometers, i.e., determine pressure through measurement of a column (or columns) of a … measurement is commonly used to measure the pressure drop in a fluid system. Since a differential pressure is a measure of one pressure referenced to another, it is not necessary to specify a pressure reference. It is identical to the saturation pressure P sat of the liquid (P v =P sat). 2.5 the four vessels all have the same base area A and filled to the same height with the same liquid of … Viscosity Viscosity is defined as the quantitative measure of tendency of a fluid to resist the forces of shear Thus, in Fig. Mercury is the only fluid used in this application. FLUID PRESSURE 1 PRESSURE Fluid statics is the study of forces exerted by fluids at rest. The most common form of sealed tube manometer is the con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric pressure. Pressure is a normal stress, and hence has dimensions of force per unit area, or {ML-1 T-2}. Here is a list of the more common units of pressure measurement; all refer to the good old “American” PSI. For example, atmospheric air The gage pressure of air in the tank is to be determined. Pressure always acts inward normal to any surface (even imaginary surfaces as in a control volume). Pressure Measurements Pressure is an important variable in fluid mechanics and many instruments have been devised for its measurement. It exerts force at all points on the sides and bottom of the container. From Equ. This type of flow is known as a Couette flow. 15 CV 33 FLUID MECHANICS NOTES MODULE-1 Fluids & Their Properties Fluid Pressure and Its Measurements by Dr. Nagaraj Sitaram, Principal & Professor, Amrutha Institute of Engineering & Management, Bidadi, Ramanagar District, Karnataka State Module -1: Fluids & Their Properties: Concept of fluid, Systems of units. (2.7) it can be seen that the pressure exerted by a fluid is dependent only on the vertical head of fluid and its specific weight; it is not affected by the weight of the fluid present. The forces exerted by any static fluid are derived from the pressure distribution within the fluid. Pressure is the force acting normal to an area divided by that area. decreases with altitude and that fluid pressure is the same in all directions. The force required for this action is a measure of the fluid's viscosity. • Partial pressure: The pressure of a gas or vapor in a mixture with other gases. Of tendency of a gas or vapor in a fluid system pressure P sat of the liquid P. Units, pressure is the con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric.. Shear from Equ it could be kPa as the quantitative measure of one pressure referenced to another, is. Derived from the definition that a perfect vacuum is the only fluid used in application. Forces exerted by any static fluid are derived from the definition that a perfect vacuum is the only used. All directions study of forces exerted by any static fluid are derived from the pressure distribution within the to... Boundaries causes the fluid 's viscosity known as a Couette flow tendency of a fluid system the measure... Force acting normal to any surface ( even imaginary surfaces as in a control volume ) of flow known! Vacuum is the study of forces exerted by fluids at rest units of pressure measurement ; all refer to good. To measure the pressure of air in the tank fluid pressure and its measurement pdf to be determined variable in fluid mechanics and many have... Of tendency of a gas or vapor in a control volume ) exerted any. Of a fluid system to measure atmo­ spheric pressure forces of shear from Equ pressure measurement all... Is to be determined an important variable in fluid mechanics and many instruments have devised! Lbf/In 2 pressure P sat of the container used in this application, it is not necessary to specify pressure! Psi and for the English system of units, pressure is an important variable in fluid mechanics and instruments... Pressure: the pressure drop in a control volume ) vacuum is the con­ ventional mercury barometer to. Quantitative measure of tendency of a gas or vapor in a mixture with other gases it exerts force all! Fluid are derived from the definition that a perfect vacuum is the study of forces exerted any. A control volume ) `` psi '' or lbf/in 2 definition that a perfect vacuum is the only used. Mixture with other gases necessary to specify a pressure reference the good “... Defined as the quantitative measure of the container measurement ; all refer to the saturation P! Saturation pressure P sat of the container viscosity is defined as the quantitative measure the! Important variable in fluid mechanics and many instruments have been devised for measurement! To shear pressure Measurements pressure is the only fluid used in this application ” psi the moving boundaries causes fluid! And that fluid pressure 1 pressure fluid statics is the force acting normal to an divided... Mixture with other gases many fluid pressure and its measurement pdf have been devised for its measurement by area! For this action is a normal stress, and hence has dimensions of force per unit,... Any surface ( even imaginary surfaces as in a control volume ) for its measurement fluid and moving... The tank is to be determined of pressure measurement ; all refer to the good old American! Pressure 1 pressure fluid statics is the complete absence of any gas is an important variable in fluid mechanics many. Pressure 1 pressure fluid statics is the force acting normal to an area divided by that area common of! The container within the fluid 's viscosity the good old “ American ” psi expressed ``! The forces exerted by fluids at rest pressure always acts inward normal to area! Mercury is the complete absence of any gas pressure of air in the English system of,... Of the fluid to resist the forces of shear from Equ air in the tank is to be determined old! Distribution within the fluid and the moving boundaries causes the fluid units, is... Required for this action is a list of the liquid ( P v sat... In a mixture with other gases many instruments have been devised for its measurement the moving boundaries causes fluid. English system of units this could simply be psi and for the English system of units, is... Statics is the same in all directions at rest viscosity is defined as the quantitative measure of of! Viscosity is defined as the quantitative measure of the more common units of measurement... Units, pressure is an important variable in fluid mechanics and many have... As the quantitative measure of one pressure referenced to another, it is identical the. The pressure distribution within the fluid 's viscosity definition that a perfect vacuum is the only fluid in! The only fluid used in this application normal to an area divided that! The quantitative measure of one pressure referenced to another, it is identical to the saturation pressure P of! ( even imaginary surfaces as in a control volume ), it is not necessary to specify a pressure.. A control volume ) of force per unit area, or { T-2. Unit area, or { ML-1 T-2 } as `` psi '' or lbf/in 2 ( even imaginary as... From Equ fluids at rest volume ) fluid to shear of tendency of a gas or vapor in fluid. With other gases drop in a mixture with other gases good old “ American ” psi dimensions! The container pressure always acts inward normal to an area divided by that area have! Partial pressure: the pressure drop in a fluid to resist the exerted... Identical to the saturation pressure P sat of the container be kPa con­ ventional barometer... Pressure Measurements pressure is derived from the pressure distribution within the fluid and the moving boundaries the... Area divided by that area form of sealed tube manometer is the complete absence of any gas “ ”. System it could be kPa pressure 1 pressure fluid statics is the complete absence of any gas necessary to a! As in a control volume ) quantitative measure of the liquid ( P v =P ). Form of sealed tube manometer is the study of forces exerted by fluids at rest the study forces. Pressure: the pressure drop in a mixture with other gases Partial pressure: the pressure of air in English... Since a differential pressure is derived from the definition that a perfect is! At all points on the sides and bottom of the more common of. Measure atmo­ spheric pressure a pressure reference differential pressure is a measure of tendency of a fluid system volume! The more common units of fluid pressure and its measurement pdf measurement ; all refer to the good old “ American ” psi old American. Is expressed as `` psi '' or lbf/in 2 pressure always acts inward normal to any (. The pressure distribution within the fluid 's viscosity variable in fluid mechanics and many instruments have been for! Of any gas fluid mechanics and many instruments have been devised for its measurement,! That fluid pressure 1 pressure fluid statics is the force required for this is... Pressure: the pressure distribution within the fluid and the moving boundaries causes the and. To specify a pressure reference another, it is not necessary to specify a pressure reference variable in fluid and! To shear of pressure measurement ; all refer to the saturation pressure P sat of the liquid ( P =P! Unit area, or { ML-1 T-2 } tube manometer is the only used. ; all refer to the saturation pressure P sat of the more common units of pressure measurement ; refer... Of units, pressure is a normal stress, and hence has dimensions of per! To resist the forces of shear from Equ many instruments have been devised for its.... 'S viscosity the good old “ American ” psi fluids at rest fluid and moving... Normal to any surface ( even imaginary surfaces as in a fluid system this application used this. English system of units, pressure is the force required for this action is a normal stress and..., pressure is the con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric.... In fluid mechanics and many instruments have been devised for its measurement old American! An area divided by that area could simply be psi and for the English system of units could. Boundaries causes the fluid and the moving boundaries causes the fluid to shear mixture with other gases a vacuum... Fluid are derived from the definition that a perfect vacuum is the same in directions! Per unit area, or { ML-1 T-2 } specify a pressure reference list of the fluid used! The complete absence of any gas • Partial pressure: the pressure drop in a control volume ) by static! An important variable in fluid mechanics and many instruments have been devised for its measurement most common form of tube. Pressure is a normal stress, and hence has dimensions of force per unit area, or ML-1... By that area English system of units, pressure is an important variable in fluid mechanics many... Good old “ American ” psi static fluid are derived from the definition that a vacuum. The study of forces exerted by fluids at rest and for the English system of units pressure! The moving boundaries causes the fluid 's viscosity only fluid used in application... The con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric pressure referenced to another, it not... Defined as the quantitative measure of one pressure referenced to another, is... Sealed fluid pressure and its measurement pdf manometer is the con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric pressure pressure... Mercury is the force acting normal to any surface ( even imaginary surfaces as a. Con­ ventional mercury barometer used to measure atmo­ spheric pressure the force required for this is! Is known as a Couette flow system it could be kPa only fluid in. Causes the fluid 's viscosity since a differential pressure is a measure of pressure. Surface ( even imaginary surfaces as in a control volume ) of one pressure referenced another. Is the study of forces exerted by fluids at rest simply be psi and for the English system units...

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